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Understanding of the Flynn Effect The Flynn Effect, first observed by James Flynn inis the steady year on year increase in IQ scores on intelligence tests, noting a greater rise in fluid non-verbal intelligence than crystallised verbal intelligence. There are numerous studies providing evidence for this effect leading to the question; are generations getting more intelligent?
There is no universal definition of intelligence, leading many researchers to try and discover common themes around the world.
One of the more accepted and universally used methods designed to test intelligence is the intelligence quotient IQ test, developed by William Stern inan idea used by many other intelligence researchers.
Inwhen reviewing intelligence tests to test validity for new versions, James Flynn noticed that whenever participants were given an old test and a new test to complete, they always got higher scores on the newer test. He went on to look at a further 73 studies Flynn, and discovered that between andwhite Americans had gained 14 IQ points, supporting his original discovery.
In he published intelligence test data from 14 countries Flynn,coming to the conclusion that IQ scores were rising not only in America, but across a number of different countries and cultures, further displaying evidence for his discovery.
So why are IQ scores getting higher? InUlrich Neisser Neisser, a edited a book suggesting some possible environmental explanations for the Flynn Effect. The book was contributed to by FlynnGreenfieldLynnNeisser bSchooler and Williams It covered 5 main areas: However, Lynn originally broke these ideas down into two opposing hypotheses; the nutrition hypothesis and the cognitive stimulation hypothesis.
It sees nutrition as increasing intelligence as part of a nurturing environment, including longer life expectancies, improved health and lower infant disease.
As food has become more readily available to most people, we are inevitably receiving more of the nutrition and food that our bodies and brains require, meaning our bodies and brains are more capable of performing to the best of their ability.
Compared with generations ago, when food and water was scarce it is almost expected that we should achieve better results on intelligence tests when our brains are better nourished and equipped to deal with them. Average human height has also risen over the last century, which has been attributed to nutrition.
Lynn ; suggested that this could be significant, as brain size has been linked to nutrition and also to intelligence. Some researchers began looking at particular nutrients in relation to intelligence. Quian et al looked at the effects of iodine on intelligence. Iodine is now well known as one of the most important minerals for good health.
Group 1 were given a supplement which contained a number of vitamins and minerals. Group 2 were given a placebo and Group 3 was not given anything.
However, there was no significant difference between verbal crystallised intelligence scores. A significant rise in IQ scores was observed in the later sample, with findings interestingly noting intelligence gains mainly observed among the lower percentile of IQ scores.
These findings, and many other replications, support the Nutrition hypothesis as evidence for the Flynn effect. Future studies could continue to look at which particular nutrients affect which particular areas of intelligence, and concentrate on broadening the research to a wider variety of cultures and socioeconomic backgrounds.
Many of the previously mentioned studies use a sample consisting of only males, which makes results less representative to the entire population. In particular, visual analysis and technical advances are seen as causing intelligence to increase.
Visual analysis can range between many things, from photographs, messages on cereal boxes, puzzles in a newspaper, to television programmes. One of the biggest changes in the twentieth century was the arrival of visual media such as television and the internet.The Flynn Effect The Flynn effect according to studies refers to the well-documented development of intelligence test over decades.
Some studies by Kanaya, Scullin &Ceci (), show that Flynn effect is a theory that demonstrates the fact that average intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have increased over the years. First, the Flynn Effect has been tossed into more IQ arguments than Arthur Jensen has hairs on his eminent head - most always, of course, by the environmentalist left.
It has been interesting, if not altogether surprising, to contrast the reaction on the race-realist right to this activity. Of Flynn's numerous publications on his intelligence work, the and papers provide good summaries of his positions on the Flynn Effect.
The article contains greater elaboration on his opinions regarding social justice than is found in the other publications. Read this essay on Flynn Effect. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays.
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The Flynn Effect, first observed by James Flynn in , is the steady year on year increase in IQ scores on intelligence tests, noting a greater rise in fluid (non . Flynn Effect Essay.
Do you believe people are really getting smarter? - Flynn Effect Essay introduction??
Why or why not? Yes People are getting smarter than before and we all can see that nowadays with all the inventions around us that we all using.