Section 2 - Application Unless otherwise stated in relation to any particular section or subsection, the provisions of this Act first apply to the tax on income derived during the income year which commenced on 1 April It should be noted that there are a number of provisions in this Act which have their own commencing dates.
By Dave Armstrong - Mon, 26 Mar With agriculture, larger areas were cleared for our domestic plants and then we found we needed industry. With the recent advent of opencast and cities with dormitory cities, the woods with which we might have grown up are finally lost.
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|Overview of Afforestation||Just not the submissive type. Whether in Spring, Summer, Autumn or Winter walking through this large forest I find myself able to escape those pressures of life that we too frequently embrace.|
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Whereas developed countries have recreational forest, none of this is ancient in many countries. Biodiversity has been lost. Only well-wooded regions such as Sweden boast some original species mixtures, while the lucky Americans of both hemispheres have only been destroying their habitats for a few hundred years.
For thousands of years, only forests that could be used for hunting or some royal pastime or other were preserved in any rational way. The "New Forest" of William the Conqueror is now the oldest forest in England, while true ancient forest, such as the Americans have, is restricted to truly tiny areas in the far north of several countries.
Mountains unfortunately don't support large trees, otherwise we could count on high areas for some protection from us.
Europeans tended to live originally on hills to avoid the lowland forest, so we decimated even those few high places that could have been conserved in modern times. Later, in the 15th century, the tree was the basis of all of that magnificent colonisation and warring on every continent, by virtue of naval power.
There is no point in blaming our ancestors. Whether we can rebuild forest in a natural state is doubtful in many regions where so many species of fauna and flora have been lost.
By far the most serious aspect of deforestation is the destruction of tropical rain forestwhere crops can quickly provide profit. The trees can also be profitable of course, as in Indonesia where toilet paper is being made from trees, removing the last refuge of Sumatran tigers there.
Really valuable trees such as teak have been replanted in some countries. Thailand has many new golden teak plantations. This hardly compensates for the sites that can be seen as you fly over the remnants of rainforest.
Everywhere, oil palm and industrial farming is taking the pristine plants and their attendant rare animals. The Amazon is the largest example of sheer exploitation. With the murders of Mendes and, recently, Ribeiro, apparently by ranchers, in nature reserves in Brazil, the take-over by large scale farming, loggers mining corporations and ranchers is inevitable unless the powerless government changes.
It seems that deforestation is more about politics than any other conservation issue. When first brought to notice, the response to deforestation was to reforest areas, not always in the same place.
The afforestation was often unsuitable, with Sitka spruce where Scots pine had been taken and varieties that local organisms could not adapt to. Very few animals live in some of the dark, dense forestry projects in some European countries.
Habitat has been lost forever.
Ancient forests and the huge trees that dominate them still remain. Unfortunately their only role seems to be in a small national Park, preserved rather than conserved as a large ecosystem. Scotland still has stands of ancient pine that are nostalgic to view. All the native species that survive there remind you of a tropical forest.
But these few stands are being enlarged slowly so we may gain back the forest that wild areas deserve. The Countess of Sutherland long ago condemned her crofters to poverty and emigration to Americabut she also condemned her own trees, with the introduction of the industrial farming of the 19th century - sheep!
Elsewhere, these lessons have to be learnt.A small area of chestnut oak woodland with dense low grasses on the northeastern knoll of Laurel Hill appears to represent “natural” vegetation on a non-quarried area (EK, personal observation, ).
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Paragraph on afforestation Afforestation is the process of establishing a forest on land that is not a forest, or has not been a forest for a long time by planting trees or their seeds.
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. An Act to grant certain duties, to alter other duties, and to amend the law relating to the National Debt and the Public Revenue, and to make further provision in .
NEWBOROUGH FOREST. Had you visited the small village of Newborough before the s, then it would have been a regular experience to have sand storms depositing their load on your home and in your lobscouse.