This review 1 considers data from multiple domains, e. Alterations to the brain's motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions.
Introduction The technology of electrostatic photocopying has transformed the intellectual transmission of information and knowledge in our lifetime.
Inventor Chester Carlson unsuccessfully tried to market his invention between and to mare than 20 companies.
Finally, Haloid, a small company in Rochester, New York, was willing to devote years to developing the first automated dry copier process. When the machine became a success, the company changed its name to Xerox, based on the coined word "xerography" from the Greek roots for "dry" and "writing".
The first fully automated Xerox machine was shipped in 1. The Xerox machine made copies on plain paper and quickly gained market share in competition with Electrofax type copiers, introduced in by RCA, which produced electrostatic copies on a coated paper 2. Inan estimated 70 million copies were made.
Twenty-five years later an estimated billion copies were made 3. These figures mean, among other things, that more of the papers which people will choose to save in coming years will be photocopies.
The impact of the photocopier is not just in archival and library collections. Artists too have discovered the Report corona case study instantaneous images of the photocopier.
The possibilities for artists are many. Photocopies can be used as collage elements. Solvents will transfer copier images to other surfaces including the lithographic stone.
If the paper will not go through the feed, the image can be transferred onto the desired paper or other support textiles, etc. One of the landmark exhibitions of photocopier art was the Electroworks exhibition, sponsored by the Xerox Corporation, which was displayed at the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House and the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in Electrostatic photocopies fall into two types.
Xerographic or plain paper copies are indirect electrostatic copies, made using an intermediate photoconductive surface, such as a selenium drum or a photoconductive belt. The charged photoconductive surface receives the light reflected off the original and loses charge where struck by the light, creating a charged latent image that can attract toner particles.
When xerographic copies are made on transparent films, the toner is generally fused by exposure to solvent vapors. Copies made with zinc oxide coated paper, as in the Electrofax process, are direct electrostatic copies, in that the zinc oxide in a resin binder is the photoconductive surface which is charged and then receives the light reflected off the original.
In direct electrostatic copies, the toner can be applied as a dry powder or suspended in a solvent such as a hydrocarbon or halogenated hydrocarbon. Direct electrostatic copies made by fluid development give better tonal reproduction, but are low contrast images in which black appears as dark gray.
Xerographic copies are high contrast with generally poor rendition of intermediate tones. In xerographic copies, the toner is applied as a dry powder.
Some dry toner systems are monocomponent, but many are dual component systems, requiring the addition of toner and a so-called carrier. The carrier powder consists of fine spheres of sand, glass, steel, etc.
In both types of electrostatic copies, the toner image consists chiefly of carbon black pigment in a resin binder, though some dyes and other additives may be present.
The advent of color copiers greatly expanded the appeal of copiers to artists. Other companies such as Canon are now producing color copiers.
An electrostatic copier, it uses a laser beam to create a digital image signal. The copy produced consists of powder toners heat-fused to a plain paper.Photocopier Hazards and a Conservation Case Study By Kitty Nicholson Senior Conservator, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
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