Creation[ edit ] On March 11,Gene Roddenberry, a long-time fan of science fiction, drafted a short treatment for a science-fiction television series that he called Star Trek.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The techniques of astronomy Astronomical observations involve a sequence of stages, each of which may impose constraints on the type of information attainable.
Radiant energy is collected with telescopes and brought to a focus on a detector, which is calibrated so that its sensitivity and spectral response are known. Accurate pointing and timing are required to permit the correlation of observations made with different instrument systems working in different wavelength intervals and located at places far apart.
The galaxy note 10.1 youtube writing a thesis must be spectrally analyzed so that the processes responsible for radiation emission can be identified. Since that time, telescopes have become central to astronomy. Having apertures much larger than the pupil of the human eyetelescopes permit the study of faint and distant objects.
In addition, sufficient radiant energy can be collected in short time intervals to permit rapid fluctuations in intensity to be detected. Further, with more energy collected, a spectrum can be greatly dispersed and examined in much greater detail.
Aerial view of the Keck Observatory's twin domes, which are opened to reveal the telescopes. Keck II is on the left and Keck I on the right.
Keck Observatory Optical telescopes are either refractors or reflectors that use lenses or mirrorsrespectively, for their main light-collecting elements objectives. Refractors are effectively limited to apertures of about cm approximately 40 inches or less because of problems inherent in the use of large glass lenses.
These distort under their own weight and can be supported only around the perimeter; an appreciable amount of light is lost due to absorption in the glass. Large-aperture refractors are very long and require large and expensive domes. The largest modern telescopes are all reflectors, the very largest composed of many segmented components and having overall diameters of about 10 metres 33 feet.
Reflectors are not subject to the chromatic problems of refractors, can be better supported mechanically, and can be housed in smaller domes because they are more compact than the long-tube refractors.
The angular resolving power or resolution of a telescope is the smallest angle between close objects that can be seen clearly to be separate. Resolution is limited by the wave nature of light.
Sophisticated computing programs can allow much-improved resolution, and the performance of telescopes on Earth can be improved through the use of adaptive optics, in which the surface of the mirror is adjusted rapidly to compensate for atmospheric turbulence that would otherwise distort the image.
In addition, image data from several telescopes focused on the same object can be merged optically and through computer processing to produce images having angular resolutions much greater than that from any single component.
The atmosphere does not transmit radiation of all wavelengths equally well. Longer infrared wavelengths are strongly absorbed by atmospheric water vapour and carbon dioxide. Atmospheric effects can be reduced by careful site selection and by carrying out observations at high altitudes.
Most major optical observatories are located on high mountainswell away from cities and their reflected lights. Infrared telescopes have been located atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii, in the Atacama Desert in Chile, and in the Canary Islandswhere atmospheric humidity is very low. Airborne telescopes designed mainly for infrared observations—such as on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIAa jet aircraft fitted with astronomical instruments—operate at an altitude of about 12 km 40, feet with flight durations limited to a few hours.
Telescopes for infraredX-rayand gamma-ray observations have been carried to altitudes of more than 30 kmfeet by balloons. Higher altitudes can be attained during short-duration rocket flights for ultraviolet observations. Telescopes for all wavelengths from infrared to gamma rays have been carried by robotic spacecraft observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probewhile cosmic rays have been studied from space by the Advanced Composition Explorer.
National Radio Astronomy Observatory Angular resolution better than one milliarcsecond has been achieved at radio wavelengths by the use of several radio telescopes in an array.
In such an arrangement, the effective aperture then becomes the greatest distance between component telescopes. In another technique, called very long baseline interferometry VLBIsimultaneous observations are made with radio telescopes thousands of kilometres apart; this technique requires very precise timing.
Hajor Earth is a moving platform for astronomical observations. Use of radiation detectors Although the human eye remains an important astronomical tool, detectors capable of greater sensitivity and more rapid response are needed to observe at visible wavelengths and, especially, to extend observations beyond that region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Photography was an essential tool from the late 19th century until the s, when it was supplanted by charge-coupled devices CCDs. However, photography still provides a useful archival record.Introduction. Science is in a state of crisis. Where free inquiry, natural curiosity and open-minded discussion and consideration of new ideas should reign, a new orthodoxy has emerged.
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