The final installment in the CE series on sea level rise. Introduction Global mean sea level GMSL has increased by about 8—9 inches sincewith about 3 inches occurring since As discussed in Part VIscientists expect that GMSL will continue to rise well beyond the 21st century because of global warming that has already occurred and warming that is yet to occur. The recent NOAA Report Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States has stated that even the relatively small increases in sea level over the last several decades have been associated greater storm impacts at many places along the U.
Calder's Updates, May 3, "The Sun makes fantastic natural experiments" Henrik Svensmark says, "that allow us to test our ideas about its effects on the Earth's climate".
Apr 19, · THE BASICS ABOUT TORNADOES. What is a tornado? According to the Glossary of Meteorology (AMS ), a tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud." The wording of other definitions may vary, but one constant is this: a tornado must must be in contact with the ground . Major differences between hurricanes and tornadoes are their formation method, location, appearance, wind speed and method of inflicting damage. Major similarities are that they form during storm conditions and are very powerful and destructive, watches and warnings are issued through weather. Introduction. What exactly is global warming and why is it worthy of consideration? Global warming is the scientific phenomenon linking an increase of the average earth temperature because of a trapping of radiation within the earth like a greenhouse.
Most dramatic are the events called Forbush decreases. Ejections of gas from the Sun, carrying magnetic fields, can suddenly cut the influx of cosmic rays coming to the Earth from exploded stars. According to the Svensmark hypothesis, cosmic rays seed the formation of low clouds, so there should be a reduction in the Earth's low cloud cover in the aftermath of a Forbush decrease.
With the right tracking skills, the Copenhagen team confirmed all their expectations about the Forbush decreases. Combined data for the five strongest Forbush decreases since show a loss of fine aerosols from the atmosphere, especially about 5 days after the cosmic ray minimum red curve.
The first of the graphics shows a temporary shortage of fine aerosols, chemical specks in the air that normally grow until water vapour can condense on them, so seeding the liquid water droplets of low-level clouds.
The remaining three graphs display the observable loss of the clouds that would have been seeded if the aerosols had survived to do their job.
Three different kinds of satellite observations tell the same story. Cosmic rays continuously promote the formation of micro-clusters of sulphuric acid and water molecules, but initially these are far too small to be detectable by remote observation.
After growing routinely over a number of days the invisible specks floating in the air influence the normal colour of sunlight as seen from the ground, by scattering away its violet light.
Conversely, a shortage of fine aerosols after a shortage of cosmic rays should make the Sun appear abnormally bright in at the violet end of the spectrum.
As the graphs above show, all of these observational data sets showed much the same pattern of events after the strongest Forbush decreases sincenamely a decrease in liquid water clouds that reached its lowest point six to nine days after the minimum count of cosmic rays.
As for the magnitude of the impact on cloud cover, it was huge. The water remains there in vapour form, but unlike cloud droplets it does not block sunlight trying to warm the ocean. From solar activity to cosmic ray ionization to aerosols and liquid-water clouds, a causal chain appears to operate on a global scale.
Although they are too short-lived to have a lasting effect on the climate, the Forbush decreases dramatize the cosmic climate mechanism that works more patiently during the year solar cycle.
When the Sun becomes more active, the decline in low-altitude cosmic radiation is greater than that seen in most Forbush events, and the loss of low cloud cover persists for long enough to warm the world.
That explains the alternations of warming and cooling seen in the lower atmosphere and in the oceans during solar cycles.
And the overall increase in solar activity during the 20th Century implies a loss of low clouds sufficient to explain most of the "global warming". Noor van Andel,climategate. It has been proposed that galactic cosmic rays may influence the Earth's climate by affecting cloud formation.
If changes in cloudiness play a part in climate change, their effect changes sign in Antarctica. Satellite data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ERBE are here used to calculate the changes in surface temperatures at all latitudes, due to small percentage changes in cloudiness.
The results match the observed contrasts in temperature changes, globally and in Antarctica. Evidently clouds do not just respond passively to climate changes but take an active part in the forcing, in accordance with changes in the solar magnetic field that vary the cosmic-ray flux.
Cloud tops have a high albedo and exert their cooling effect by scattering back into the cosmos much of the sunlight that could otherwise warm the surface. But the snows on the Antarctic ice sheets are dazzlingly white, with a higher albedo than the cloud tops.
There, extra cloud cover warms the surface, and less cloudiness cools it. Satellite measurements show the warming effect of clouds on Antarctica, and meteorologists at far southern latitudes confirm it by observation. Greenland too has an ice sheet, but it is smaller and not so white.
And while conditions in Greenland are coupled to the general climate of the northern hemisphere, Antarctica is largely isolated by vortices in the ocean and the air.
The cosmic-ray and cloud-forcing hypothesis therefore predicts that temperature changes in Antarctica should be opposite in sign to changes in temperature in the rest of the world.
This is exactly what is observed, in a well-known phenomenon that some geophysicists have called the polar see-saw, but for which "the Antarctic climate anomaly" seems a better name. See Cosmoclimatology Professor Henrik Svensmark, The Tragedy Of Oedipus The King - You know and you won’t tell.
You’re bent on betraying us, destroying Thebes. (Sophocles ) In hopes of having the prophecy changed, Oedipus argued to Tiresias that what he was being told was a lie. Schwimer Weinstein, LLP, is a boutique civil litigation law firm in Los Angeles that is distinguished by the experience, quality and dedication of our attorneys in the aggressive pursuit of our clients’ goals.
To compare and to contrast hurricanes and tornadoes the main areas of interest are the creation of both disasters, and the destructive power that is associated with both tornadoes and hurricanes.
Tornadoes vs Hurricanes Essay. To compare and to contrast hurricanes and tornadoes the main areas of interest are the creation of both disasters, and the destructive power that is associated with both tornadoes and hurricanes.
Hurricanes get their start over the warm tropical waters of the North Atlantic Ocean near the equator. The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas - The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas "Perhaps it would be best if you imagined it as your fancy bids, assuming it will rise to the occasion, for certainly I .
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